Showing posts tagged books

sosaidthechildren:

Book written in DNA code

Geraint Jones || The Guardian

Scientists who encoded the book say it could soon be cheaper to store information in DNA than in conventional digital devices

Scientists have for the first time used DNA to encode the contents of a book. At 53,000 words, and including 11 images and a computer program, it is the largest amount of data yet stored artificially using the genetic material.

The researchers claim that the cost of DNA coding is dropping so quickly that within five to 10 years it could be cheaper to store information using this method than in conventional digital devices.

Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA – the chemical that stores genetic instructions in almost all known organisms – has an impressive data capacity. One gram can store up to 455bn gigabytes: the contents of more than 100bn DVDs, making it the ultimate in compact storage media.

A three-strong team led by Professor George Church of Harvard Medical School has now demonstrated that the technology to store data in DNA, while still slow, is becoming more practical. They report in the journal Science that the 5.27 megabit collection of data they stored is more than 600 times bigger than the largest dataset previously encoded this way.

Writing the data to DNA took several days. “This is currently something for archival storage,” explained co-author Dr Sriram Kosuri of Harvard’s Wyss Institute, “but the timing is continually improving.”

DNA has numerous advantages over traditional digital storage media. It can be easily copied, and is often still readable after thousands of years in non-ideal conditions. Unlike ever-changing electronic storage formats such as magnetic tape and DVDs, the fundamental techniques required to read and write DNA information are as old as life on Earth.

The researchers, who have filed a provisional patent application covering the idea, used off-the-shelf components to demonstrate their technique.

To maximise the reliability of their method, and keep costs down, they avoided the need to create very long sequences of code – something that is much more expensive than creating lots of short chunks of DNA. The data was split into fragments that could be written very reliably, and was accompanied by an address book listing where to find each code section.

Digital data is traditionally stored as binary code: ones and zeros. Although DNA offers the ability to use four “numbers”: A, C, G and T, to minimise errors Church’s team decided to stick with binary encoding, with A and C both indicating zero, and G and T representing one.

The sequence of the artificial DNA was built up letter by letter using existing methods with the string of As, Cs, Ts and Gs coding for the letters of the book.

The team developed a system in which an inkjet printer embeds short fragments of that artificially synthesised DNA onto a glass chip. Each DNA fragment also contains a digital address code that denotes its location within the original file.

The fragments on the chip can later be “read” using standard techniques of the sort used to decipher the sequence of ancient DNA found in archeological material. A computer can then reassemble the original file in the right order using the address codes.

The book – an HTML draft of a volume co-authored by the team leader – was written to the DNA with images embedded to demonstrate the storage medium’s versatility.

DNA is such a dense storage system because it is three-dimensional. Other advanced storage media, including experimental ones such as positioning individual atoms on a surface, are essentially confined to two dimensions.

The work did not involve living organisms, which would have introduced unnecessary complications and some risks. The biological function of a cell could be affected and portions of DNA not used by the cell could be removed or mutated. “If the goal is information storage, there’s no need to use a cell,” said Kosuri.

The data cannot be overwritten but, given the storage capacity, that is seen as a minor issue. The exercise was not completely error-free, but of the 5.27m bits stored, only 10 were found to be incorrect. The team suggests common error-checking techniques could be implemented in future, including multiple copies of the same information so mistakes can be easily identified.

The costs of DNA-handling tools are not yet competitive enough to make this a large-scale storage medium. But the costs and scale of the tools are dropping much more quickly than their electronic equivalents. For example, handheld DNA sequencers are becoming available, which the authors suggest should greatly simplify information stored in DNA.

Kosuri foresees this revolution in DNA technologies continuing. “We may hit a wall, but there’s no fundamental reason why it shouldn’t continue.”

Read City of Bones today (yeup. started today & finished today)

and holy fk.

I hate fantasy, but this book changed my perspective. Can’t wait to read the next book :’D

In case ya’ll didn’t know, I fuckinglovereading  love books.

Heat Pipes Just Cough: Have you read more than 6 of these books? The BBC believes most people will have read only 6 of the 100 books listed...

khareen:

Bold those books you’ve read in their entirety.

Italicize the ones you started but didn’t finish or read only an excerpt.

1 Pride and Prejudice – Jane Austen
2 The Lord of the Rings – JRR Tolkien
3 Jane Eyre – Charlotte Bronte
4 Harry Potter series –
5 To Kill a Mockingbird – Harper Lee
6 The Bible
7 Wuthering Heights – Emily Bronte
8 Nineteen Eighty Four – George Orwell
9 His Dark Materials – Philip Pullman
10 Great Expectations – Charles Dickens
11 Little Women – Louisa M Alcott
12 Tess of the D’Urbervilles – Thomas Hardy
13 Catch 22 – Joseph Heller
14 Complete Works of Shakespeare
15 Rebecca – Daphne Du Maurier
16 The Hobbit – JRR Tolkien
17 Birdsong – Sebastian Faulks
18 Catcher in the Rye – JD Salinger
19 The Time Traveller’s Wife – Audrey Niffenegger
20 Middlemarch – George Eliot
21 Gone With The Wind – Margaret Mitchell
22 The Great Gatsby – F Scott Fitzgerald
23 Bleak House – Charles Dickens
24 War and Peace – Leo Tolstoy
25 The Hitch Hiker’s Guide to the Galaxy – Douglas Adams
26 Brideshead Revisited – Evelyn Waugh
27 Crime and Punishment – Fyodor Dostoyevsky
28 Grapes of Wrath – John Steinbeck
29 Alice in Wonderland – Lewis Carroll
30 The Wind in the Willows – Kenneth Grahame
31 Anna Karenina – Leo Tolstoy
32 David Copperfield – Charles Dickens
33 Chronicles of Narnia – CS Lewis
34 Emma – Jane Austen
35 Persuasion – Jane Austen
36 The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe – CS Lewis
37 The Kite Runner – Khaled Hosseini
38 Captain Corelli’s Mandolin – Louis De Bernieres
39 Memoirs of a Geisha – Arthur Golden
40 Winnie the Pooh – AA Milne
41 Animal Farm – George Orwell
42 The Da Vinci Code – Dan Brown
43 One Hundred Years of Solitude – Gabriel Garcia Marquez
44 A Prayer for Owen Meaney – John Irving
45 The Woman in White – Wilkie Collins
46 Anne of Green Gables – LM Montgomery
47 Far From The Madding Crowd – Thomas Hardy
48 The Handmaid’s Tale – Margaret Atwood
49 Lord of the Flies – William Golding
50 Atonement – Ian McEwan
51 Life of Pi – Yann Martel
52 Dune – Frank Herbert
53 Cold Comfort Farm – Stella Gibbons
54 Sense and Sensibility – Jane Austen
55 A Suitable Boy – Vikram Seth
56 The Shadow of the Wind – Carlos Ruiz Zafon
57 A Tale Of Two Cities – Charles Dickens
58 Brave New World – Aldous Huxley
59 The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time – Mark Haddon
60 Love In The Time Of Cholera – Gabriel Garcia Marquez
61 Of Mice and Men – John Steinbeck
62 Lolita – Vladimir Nabokov
63 The Secret History – Donna Tartt
64 The Lovely Bones – Alice Sebold
65 Count of Monte Cristo – Alexandre Dumas
66 On The Road – Jack Kerouac
67 Jude the Obscure – Thomas Hardy
68 Bridget Jones’s Diary – Helen Fielding
69 Midnight’s Children – Salman Rushdie
70 Moby Dick – Herman Melville
71 Oliver Twist – Charles Dickens
72 Dracula – Bram Stoker
73 The Secret Garden – Frances Hodgson Burnett
74 Notes From A Small Island – Bill Bryson
75 Ulysses – James Joyce
76 The Bell Jar – Sylvia Plath
77 Swallows and Amazons – Arthur Ransome
78 Germinal – Emile Zola
79 Vanity Fair – William Makepeace Thackeray
80 Possession – AS Byatt
81 A Christmas Carol – Charles Dickens
82 Cloud Atlas – David Mitchel
83 The Color Purple – Alice Walker
84 The Remains of the Day – Kazuo Ishiguro
85 Madame Bovary – Gustave Flaubert
86 A Fine Balance – Rohinton Mistry
87 Charlotte’s Web – EB White
88 The Five People You Meet In Heaven – Mitch Albom
89 Adventures of Sherlock Holmes – Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
90 The Faraway Tree Collection – Enid Blyton
91 Heart of Darkness – Joseph Conrad
92 The Little Prince – Antoine De Saint-Exupery
93 The Wasp Factory – Iain Banks
94 Watership Down – Richard Adams
95 A Confederacy of Dunces – John Kennedy Toole
96 A Town Like Alice – Nevil Shute
97 The Three Musketeers – Alexandre Dumas
98 Hamlet – William Shakespeare
99 Charlie and the Chocolate Factory – Roald Dahl
100 Les Miserables – Victor Hugo

fotolia:

Design Inspiration:

the sketchbook project is a seriously cool idea, currently housed in the brooklyn art library on north 3rd street in williamsburg. to participate, entrants pay $25 to receive a sketchbook and a category under which their book will be categorized. once their book is completed, it will be among the thousands exhibited, touring the world. for the rest of us, a visit to the shop and a couple hours flipping through various artist’s insights can transport us between countries and minds.
Zoom Info
fotolia:

Design Inspiration:

the sketchbook project is a seriously cool idea, currently housed in the brooklyn art library on north 3rd street in williamsburg. to participate, entrants pay $25 to receive a sketchbook and a category under which their book will be categorized. once their book is completed, it will be among the thousands exhibited, touring the world. for the rest of us, a visit to the shop and a couple hours flipping through various artist’s insights can transport us between countries and minds.
Zoom Info
fotolia:

Design Inspiration:

the sketchbook project is a seriously cool idea, currently housed in the brooklyn art library on north 3rd street in williamsburg. to participate, entrants pay $25 to receive a sketchbook and a category under which their book will be categorized. once their book is completed, it will be among the thousands exhibited, touring the world. for the rest of us, a visit to the shop and a couple hours flipping through various artist’s insights can transport us between countries and minds.
Zoom Info
fotolia:

Design Inspiration:

the sketchbook project is a seriously cool idea, currently housed in the brooklyn art library on north 3rd street in williamsburg. to participate, entrants pay $25 to receive a sketchbook and a category under which their book will be categorized. once their book is completed, it will be among the thousands exhibited, touring the world. for the rest of us, a visit to the shop and a couple hours flipping through various artist’s insights can transport us between countries and minds.
Zoom Info

fotolia:

Design Inspiration:


the sketchbook project
is a seriously cool idea, currently housed in the brooklyn art library on north 3rd street in williamsburg. to participate, entrants pay $25 to receive a sketchbook and a category under which their book will be categorized. once their book is completed, it will be among the thousands exhibited, touring the world. for the rest of us, a visit to the shop and a couple hours flipping through various artist’s insights can transport us between countries and minds.

i-am-lady:

sevenpoints:

laphamsquarterly:

Look, we’re only human.

YOU OTHER READERS CAN’T DENYWHEN A BOOK WALKS IN WITH A GOOD PLOT BASEAND A BIG SPINE IN YOUR FACE YOU GET SPRUNGWANNA PULL OUT YOUR PENS‘CAUSE YOU NOTICED THAT BOOK WAS DENSEREADING, HALF-RIMS I’M WEARINGI’M HOOKED AND I CAN’T CARINGOH BABY I WANT AN E-READERAND A MEANINGFUL METERMY TEACHERS TRIED TO TRAIN METHAT BOOK YOU GOT MAKE ME SO BRAINY

This post deserves a medal.

i-am-lady:

sevenpoints:

laphamsquarterly:

Look, we’re only human.

YOU OTHER READERS CAN’T DENY
WHEN A BOOK WALKS IN WITH A GOOD PLOT BASE
AND A BIG SPINE IN YOUR FACE YOU GET SPRUNG
WANNA PULL OUT YOUR PENS
‘CAUSE YOU NOTICED THAT BOOK WAS DENSE
READING, HALF-RIMS I’M WEARING
I’M HOOKED AND I CAN’T CARING
OH BABY I WANT AN E-READER
AND A MEANINGFUL METER
MY TEACHERS TRIED TO TRAIN ME
THAT BOOK YOU GOT MAKE ME SO BRAINY

This post deserves a medal.